The large number of interviews and group discussions that take place during the community assessment will provide a lot of information. This information needs to be organised in such a way that it can be analysed effectively. Effective organisation and analysis of qualitative data is integral to the formation of the prior in Stage 3.
This section outlines a number of tools which can be used by the survey team to organise and analyse qualitative information.
During a SQUEAC assessment, it is important that qualitative data is validated. To be considered validated, it needs to be cited by a number of different sources. If, when sources are cross-checked against each other, data from one source is confirmed by data from another source, then the data can be considered useful. If data is only confirmed by one source, then more data should be collected, either from the same source or from different sources. This process is known as triangulation.
Data collection using triangulation is a purposeful and intelligent process. Data using different sources and methods should be regularly and frequently compared with each other.
SQUEAC surveys use two different types of triangulation:
Spreadsheets and databases are not very useful when dealing with data collected using the principles of triangulation (by source and method) and sampling to redundancy. This is because:
SQUEAC uses a variety of tools to organise and analyse qualitative data:
BBQ tool: The BBQ (Barriers, Boosters and Questions) tool is designed to help a survey team to triangulate the information gathered during the community assessment. It provides a summary of the current state of an investigation and facilitates the planning of additional data collection. It also enhances team building and improves the quality of the investigation.
A guide on the BBQ tool is available here.
Mind-maps: Mind-mapping is a graphical way of storing and organising data and ideas. A mind-map organises findings using tree structures organised around a central theme and summarises the findings of a SQUEAC assessment. It is drawn and modified as the investigation proceeds.
A guide on how to develop mind-maps during a SQUEAC is available here.
While the BBQ Tool and Mind-mapping are useful for organising and analysing qualitative data while Stage 1 is taking place, a number of additional tools exist for reflecting on findings. These should take place with all of the enumerators present after the qualitative data collection phase has been completed:
Concept maps: Concept mapping is a graphical data-analysis technique that is useful for representing relationships between findings. Concept-maps show findings and the connections (relationships) between findings.
A guide on how to draw concept maps is available here.
See Community Assessment Guidelines in Stage 1: Qualitative data collection.