The data collected from routine program data and qualitative data, when combined, provide information about where coverage is likely to be satisfactory and where coverage is likely to be unsatisfactory, as well as information about the likely barriers to service access and uptake that exist within a programme. This information can be considered or stated as a set of hypotheses that can be tested.
This page outlines how hypotheses are formulated and the small study and sample methods used to test them. The next page (Stage 2: Analysis of findings) outlines how the results of these can validate or disprove the hypotheses set.
Surveyors should set their hypotheses based on the information and data gathered during Stage 1. Hypotheses should always be stated before starting the survey or sampling.
For example, if, during Stage 1, an area of low coverage was identified by mapping beneficiary home locations, analysis of outreach activities, defaulter follow-up, and qualitative data, the hypothesis would be:
Coverage is below the Sphere standard of 50% of OTPs in rural settings due to:
Based on this overarching hypothesis, the assessment team should therefore set two hypotheses:
In order to test these hypotheses, the team should then purposively select at least two villages or communities located more than 10 km from their local OTP site and two areas or communities located less than 10 km from their local OTP site.
This technical note provides more information about the scope of hypothesis tests during SQUEAC surveys.
The hypotheses set will determine the sampling or survey method to be used. Hypotheses can be tested in three different ways:
More information about the sampling and survey methods is available here. Also concise quality assurance guidelines for Stage 2 are available in Tools.
Once in the communities, survey teams can use two in-community case finding techniques to locate cases in each village:
Here is a guide on how to carry out each technique. The findings of the interviews with carers of acutely malnourished children and results of the sampling should be recorded on forms. Templates for these are available in Tools.
The next section, Stage 2: Analysis of findings, outlines how to analyse the findings of the surveys or studies in order to validate or disprove the hypotheses.